Semi-auxiliaires are verbs that can be used to construct specific verbal expressions. In general and not unlike their counterparts in English, those verbs create specific frames.
When used in this manner, the verbs lose the meaning they possess when used singly, and become “modifying” auxiliaries.
All these verbs, except connaìtre, can be built with an infinitive (verb + infinitive) as object. Example: savoir nager / knowing how to swim
The verbs are:
Aller / To go to, can indicate: intention, imminent future
Example: Je vais à la poste. / I am going to the post office.
Devoir / To have to can also mean: must, supposed to, should, should have; and indicate: obligation, intention, probability, advice, anticipation, rebuke
Je dois quitter le pays. / I must leave the country.
Il doit passer ce soir. / He should come by tonight.
Faire / To make ( To make + action) indicates the subject provokes the action but does not perform it him/herself.
Example: J’ai fait construire une piscine. / I had a pool built.
faire voir / to show
Example: Je lui ai fait voir mes notes. / I showed him my notes.
faire savoir / to make known, to teach or to say
Example: Il nous ont fait savoir qu’ils arrivaient. / They told us they were arriving.
Laisser / To leave and similar verbs (see table below)
|laisser quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to let someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Je l’ai laissé porter le panier./ I let him carry the basket.|
|regarder quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to watch someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Nous avons regardé la chouette manger la souris. / We looked at the owl eat the mouse.|
|voir quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to see someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Tu l’as vu sortir de la voiture aprés l’accident. / You saw him exit the car. after the accident|
|apercevoir quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to see someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Il l’a aperçu parler à sa voisine. / He saw her talk to his neighbor.|
|écouter quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to listen to someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Vous avez écouté le professeur parler de ses experiences. / You listened to your professor talk about his experiences.|
|entendre quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to hear someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Je l’ai entendu chanter ce matin. / I heard him sing this morning.|
|sentir quelqu’un + infinitive + quelque chose / to feel someone + infinitive + somethingExample: Ils sentent le train passer au dessus d’eux. / They feel the train pass over them.|
The above verbs are followed by an infinitive but only with the meanings outlined above:
Pouvoir / To be able to can also mean: can, could, may, could have; and indicate: ability, success, permission, freedom, capacity, advice, rebuke
Je peux passer l’examen. / I can pass the exam.
On peut traverser la route au passage clouté. / One may cross the street at the crosswalk
Connaître and Savoir: 2 verbs that are translated the same way but mean different things in French. Both can be used as semi-auxiliaires.
|Connaître / To know (more precisely to be acquainted with)can indicate: knowing a person, an animal, a place, or a situation Shorthand: the knowledge in question is incomplete or unsure Example: Je connais ton ami. / I know your friend.|
|Savoir / To knowcan indicate: knowing a topic, a thing completely… Never, ever a person, an animal or a place! Shorthand: the knowledge in question is complete or certain Example: Je sais mes tables de multiplication. / I know my multiplication tables. Savoir is also used to construct sentences with subordinated clauses. Connaitre is never used that way. Example: Je sais quand il est arrivé./ I know when he arrived.|
Vouloir / To want to can indicate: will, good will, intention
Example: Je veux manger. / I want to eat.
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