How Do French Pronouns Work? We'll Show You

Written byAmélie Pinon

Like in any other language, pronouns in French are basically “stand in” words: they stand in for other words to avoid constant repetition.

Pronoms personnels / Personal Pronouns:

Like in any other language, these pronouns in French are used to stand in for the subject of sentences, whether they are simple nouns, or complex, lengthy clauses.

Je, j’ I
Tu You
Il, elle, on He, she, it
Nous We
Vous You
Ils, elles They


Le maire a été élu en novembre. Il a promis de baisser les impôts.
The mayor was elected in November. He promised to lower taxes.

La reine a ouvert le bal. Elle a dansé avec le roi.
The queen opened the ball. She danced with the king.

Pronouns in French are used almost the same way they’re used in English. There are however significant differences.

Whereas there are no differences in the use of you in English, the use of “tu” and “vous” is very specific in French. “Tu” is a familiar address. It should only be used with close intimates, family friends, or children, NEVER with people you don’t know, superiors or people in position of authority.

If you use “tu” with law enforcement agents after a traffic stop, you’re asking for a big fat fine. This goes both ways: if someone that you do not know uses “tu” to address you, you should take this as a mark of slight disrespect (this is variable however. In some contexts, say happy hour, “vous” would be considered too stuffy).


To a child: Comment t’appeles-tu? / What are you called?
To a police officer: Pouvez-vous m’indiquer le chemin? / Could you give me

INCORRECT: (To your boss) Comment va-tu? / How you doin’?

Pronoms Possessifs / Possessive Pronouns:

These words are used to stand for possessions. They indicate both number and gender of the possessed.

Masculin singulier Masculin pluriel Féminin singulier Féminin pluriel
Le mien / mine Les miens/ my La mienne / mine Les miennes / my
Le tien / yours Les tiens /yours La tienne /yours Les tiennes /yours
Le sien / his-hers Les siens/ his-hers /his-hers La sienne/ his-hers /his-hers Les siennes/ his-hers
Le nôtre/ours Les nôtres/ours La nôtre/ours Les nôtres/ours
Le vôtre/yours Les vôtres/ yours La vôtre/yours Les vôtres/ yours
Le leur/theirs Les leurs/theirs La leur/theirs Les leurs/theirs

Note how the French possessive pronouns differ from their English counterparts: where in English the pronoun is subject dependent (his è he, hers è she), in French the pronoun depends solely on the object it qualifies.


Cette maison est la sienne. / This house is his. (maison = feminine, singular => la sienne = feminine, singular)

Ces livres sont les vôtres. / These books are yours. (livres = masculine, plural => les vôtres = masculine, plural)

Cette voiture, c’est la mienne. / This car, it is mine. (voiture = feminine, singular => la mienne = feminine, singular)

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How Do French Pronouns Work? We'll Show You
Pronouns in French are used as a substitute for subjects of sentences, whether they are nouns or clauses.
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Amélie Pinon
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